Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral that is composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate and has the chemical formula of calcium sulfate in two hydrates.
This material is widely extracted and used as fertilizer and the main building material in many forms of plaster, blackboard, sidewalk plaster and drywall. Large types of fine-grained white or slightly chalky gypsum, called alabaster, have been used for sculpture by many cultures, including ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, ancient Rome, the Byzantine Empire, and more. Gypsum also crystallizes as clear crystals of selenite. It is formed as an evaporative mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite.
Gypsum is one of the most widely used minerals. As mentioned, this mineral is made by compressing calcium sulfate into two hydrates. Gypsum is one of the evaporative sedimentary rocks that initially existed as a solution in water and was left over from the destruction of old seas.
Gypsums are divided into two categories, alpha and beta. Alpha gypsum is produced and cured at a pressure and temperature of about 97 ° C, while beta gypsum is obtained at a temperature of 100 ° C.
Beta gypsum is used in the construction industry due to its high solubility and short adhesion time. Most of the plaster is used as the interior covering of buildings. Alpha plaster is used as a mold in dentistry, sculpture and jewelry due to its long adhesion time and low solubility.
Types of Gypsum
Pure gypsum: Pure gypsum is completely colorless and transparent. In ancient times, the Greeks used this type of stone to cover the windows of their houses due to the refraction of light. Pure gypsum is rarely found in nature because gypsum has a strong affinity. The purity of gypsum is measured based on the percentage of gypsum mineral in it.
Marble or alabaster: This mineral is widely used in the preparation of decorative tools and equipment and it is used to prepare sculptures and photo frames. This stone is also known as gypsum marble.
Crystalline gypsum: This type of pink gypsum has a layer that is obtained by the adhesion of thin sheets of calcium hydrosulfite or in the form of silk stone, which is the product of the adhesion of crystalline fibers of calcium hydrosulfite.
Non-crystalline gypsum: The most abundant type of gypsum in nature is non-crystalline gypsum, which is used as a raw material for gypsum factories.
Selenite: Selenite is a colorless and transparent type of gypsum. The word selenite is a Greek word meaning moon and moonstone. This type of gypsum is gorgeous, shiny and also has the ability to be laminated.
Satin Spar: Another type of gypsum that has a fibrous and fibrous form. Its fibers are dense and interconnected like fibers. When light passes through this type of rock, it hits the crystal fibers and is distracted.
Marine glass gypsum: This type of laminated gypsum is layered and does not use gypsum.
Cluster gypsum: Another type of gypsum that is interconnected in the form of silk threads.
What is gypsum usage?
Gypsum or gypsum has many uses and is one of the most widely used minerals on earth. The use of this mineral began about 5000 years ago and the use of this type of stone continues and it can even be said that the range of application of this stone has increased.
Gypsum in cases such as:
Medical uses: These stones are usually used to mold dentures. It should be noted that gypsum used in the medical industry must have a solubility of at least 96% with
Application of gypsum in mold making: This type of stone is usually used for molding jewelry or ornaments.
Application of gypsum in the construction industry: One of the most important and oldest applications of this stone is the use in the construction industry. Due to its softness as well as its ability to be insulated from cold and heat, it has many applications in the construction of house.